Today, an increasing number of crops commercially grown today are genetically modified (GM) to resist insect pests and tolerate herbicides. Even though Bt corn is one of the most commonly grown GM crops in the United States, its effects on the long-term health of soils is known little. Although there are many advantages using biotechnology in agriculture, there are more disadvantages and hazards of the GM technology. The GM crops may have an impact on the soil organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and affect plants subsequently grown in the same field. Although Bt maize is widely cultivated, few studies have examined the interaction of different lines of Bt maize with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil. Bt corn is genetically engineered to express insecticidal toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, to protect it against common agricultural pests such as the corn root worm and European corn borer. Globally, genetically modified corn is cultivated in at least 16 different countries. Earth defenders says Genetically Modified corn are unsafe and could be a threat to soil ecosystem.
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